Banking Finance 2023, Banking Finance June 2023


Electronic- banking use of computers and telecommunications to enable banking transactions to be done by telephone or computer rather than through human interaction. Its features include electronic funds transfer for retail purchases, automatic teller machines (ATMs), and automatic payroll deposits and bill payments

Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is an instant real-time payment system developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). The interface facilitates inter-bank peer-to-peer (P2P) and person-to-merchant (P2M) transactions. UPI is powered by Immediate Payment Service (IMPS). It is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and works by instantly transferring funds between two bank accounts on a mobile platform.

As of February 2022, there are 304 banks available on UPI with a monthly volume of 4.52 billion transactions and a value of Rs. 8.26 lakh crore (US$110 billion). UPI witnessed 68 billion transactions until November 2021. The mobile-only payment system helped transact a total of Rs. 34.95 lakh crore (US$460 billion) during the 67 months of operation starting from 2016.

As of May 2021, the platform has 15 crore (150 million) monthly active users in India. The proportion of UPI transactions in total volume of digital transactions grew from 23% in 2018–19 to 55% in 2020–21 with an average value of Rs. 1,849 per transaction. There were digital transactions worth Rs. 8.31 lakh crore in January 2022 via the platform.In FY 2022, the UPI crossed transactions worth $1 trillion.


In April 2009, the National Payment Corporation of India was formed with the objective to integrate all the payment mechanisms available in the country and make them uniform for retail payments. By March 2011, RBI found out that in India only six non-cash transactions happen every year per individual citizen while 10 million (10 million) retailers accept card-based payment. Around 145 million (145 million) families have no access to any form of banking. There is also the problem to tackle black money and corruption that happens mostly in cash.

RBI in 2012 released a vision statement for a period of four years that indicated commitment towards building a safe, efficient, accessible, inclusive, interoperable and authorized payment and settlement system in India. It is part of the Green Initiative to decrease the usage of paper in domestic payments market. UPI was officially launched in 2016 for public use.

Under RBI guidance, NPCI became the primary body with the task to develop a new payment system that is simple, secure, and interoperable. UPI works on four pillar push-pull interoperable model where there will be remitter/beneficiary front end PSP (payment service provider) and remitter/beneficiary back end bank that settles the monetary transaction for the users. As per CEO of Netmagic Solutions, UPI became one of the most successful deep-tech innovation coming out of India.

In December 2019, noting the success of UPI, Google suggested to the US Federal Reserve Board the development of FedNow, a real-time payment system for United States.

With exponential growth of UPI, India became the world’s largest real-time payment market with 25.50 billion (25.5 billion) annual transactions in 2020 as per data from ACI Worldwide and Global Data leaving behind China and United States.

As per the Economist Intelligence Unit Report 2021, UPI made India a leader in global real-time payment market followed by China and South Korea. After the decision of Ministry of Finance to nullify merchant discount rate (MDR) in 2019 on UPI, the number of low value transactions skyrocketed making huge gains on real-time transaction volume data. Many nations such as Brazil, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, United States and European Union are now trying to emulate the success of UPI in their own market.

From January 1, 2019, UPI became a popular payment option for Initial public offerings (IPOs). The transaction limit was enhanced from Rs. 100,000 to Rs. 200,000 in March 2020. From December 2021, RBI again increased the limit to Rs. 500,000 for Retail Direct Scheme and IPO applications. To make UPI economically feasible for payment companies, RBI is considering merchant discount rate (MDR) on future UPI transactions. RBI in its first monetary policy for financial year 2022-23 proposed cardless cash withdrawal facility from ATM using UPI based QR code.

UPI 2.0

On 16 August 2018, UPI 2.0 was launched which enabled users to link their Overdraft accounts to a UPI handle. Users were also able to pre-authorise transactions by issuing a mandate for specific merchant. 2.0 version included a feature to view and store the invoice for the transactions. There’s also an added feature of AutoPay facility for recurring payments. As of August 2021, State Bank of India (SBI), Bank of Baroda (BOB) and Paytm Payment Bank are live on UPI AutoPay each registering 660,000, 204,000, and 186,000 mandates, respectively. NPCI is planning to expand AutoPay feature to international market and will operationalize real-time payment dispute resolution mechanism covering 90% of complaints by September 2022.

From 8 June 2022, RBI allowed linking RuPay credit cards with UPI. Customers can now make credit card payment using UPI, in the absence of physical card.


As part of financial inclusion initiative, NPCI with fintech start-upUbona Technologies in 2021 started working on developing a voice-based payment service for feature phone users in low connectivity zones over UPI payment ecosystem under Interactive Voice Response (IVR) project. The system will use Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signalling technology with two-factor authentication (2FA) flow for peer-to-peer (P2P) transaction. From September 2020 to June 2021, it was under beta testing while awaiting RBI approval for large scale deployment. The beta testing and pilot experiment was completed by October 2021 and RBI started formulating guidelines for nationwide use.

RBI governor, Shaktikanta Das launched the service called UPI 123PAY on 8 March 2022, with an aim to help almost 40 crore (400 million) feature phone users in the country. Till now, UPI payments were only possible through payment applications on smartphones and USSD-based service for feature phones. But as per deputy governor T Rabi Shankar the latter has been found to be cumbersome due to the unavailability of the services on several mobile networks.

UPI 123PAY has four options for payment.

  1. App based functionality where a mobile phone manufacturer can install UPI app through over-the-air programming that can be used for payment.
  2. Missed called based in which customer can use dedicated merchant payment number by giving a missed call. The incoming authentication call will ask for PIN verification to complete the transaction.
  3. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) based where the payment transaction will complete using pre-defined phone numbers.
  4. Payment in offline mode through sound based proximity data communication.


Around 777 million Indian consumers shop across the border in 2021. To make ease of payment, NPCI International Payments Limited (NIPL) signed memorandum of understanding (MoU) with UK based PPRO Financial on 17 November 2021 to expand the acceptance of UPI into foreign markets especially in China and United States which accounts for half of all international transaction coming from India. On 26 January 2022, UK based fintech startup Transact365 enabled UPI for global merchants with real time currency conversion facility that will help them do business in India independent of local presence. As per NPCI and RBI mandate, banks, payment service providers (PSPs) and third-party application providers (TPAPs) in India must enable international acceptance through UPI from 30 September 2022.

With the release of Payments Vision 2025 document on 17 June 2022, RBI will push for internationalization of UPI with nations using United States dollar, Pound sterling and Euro under bilateral treaties.



Due to increasing remittances to India, NIPL with Western Union is going to integrate UPI to help the Indian diaspora receive and send money abroad with ease. The service will become operational from second quarter of 2022. IndusInd Bank and Thailand based financial service provider DeeMoney will use UPI ID to verify customers in India for cross border transaction. This is part of Money Transfer Operator (MTO) partners programme of NPCI.IndusInd Bank is planning to collaborate with more foreign entities to increase acceptability of UPI abroad. NIPL on 27 January 2022 signed MoU with Netherlands based Terra Payment Services that will help UPI users receive international payments from around the globe in real time. To save the cost borne by Indians living abroad when sending money back home, NPCI is planning to move 32 million expatriate population from SWIFT to UPI.


Unified Payments Interface is a real-time payment system that allows sending or requesting money from one bank account to another. Any UPI client app may be used and multiple bank accounts may be linked to a single app. Money can be sent or requested by using a user-created Virtual Payment Address (VPA) or UPI ID that helps in sending or requesting money from a bank account using the know your customer (KYC) linked mobile number. UPI also generates a specific QR code for each user account for the purpose of contact-less payment.

Mobile apps

Any UPI app can use payment and transfer fund from and to UPI enabled banks. Apart from various third-party apps such as Google Pay (previously Tez), PhonePe, Paytm, MobiKwik, Amazon Pay, Samsung Pay, WhatsApp Pay, NPCI manages its own app called BHIM.

From 21 banks in April 2016, the total number of banks linked to UPI platform is 304 as of Feb 2022.

In June 2021, NPCI removed the restriction placed on WhatsApp on UPI customer on-boarding which until now was limited to 20 million (20 million) users. With 530 million (530 million) registered users in the Indian market, WhatsApp can now formally introduce UPI to all its customers.

On-Device wallet

Since 50% of UPI transactions are below Rs. 200 with a higher frequency rate, it creates a large backlog of volume which increases the failure rate and affects the stability of the entire payment network. To save electricity consumption and computing power of banks, UPI mobile apps will have to support on-device wallet features as per the RBI directive from December 2021. The in-built wallet will help in low-value instant payment by using the infrastructure of the mobile app developer, thus decreasing the load on banks through decentralization of back-end infrastructure and resources. NPCI called this feature UPI Lite. It can scan QR code without the need of an internet connection. In phase 1, UPI Lite will process the debit transaction offline while the credit will happen when the device goes online. But the final goal is to achieve both credit and debit transaction through offline mode. The upper limit of UPI Lite On-Device wallet is Rs. 2,000. Additional factor authentication or UPI AutoPay feature will be used to securely load the desirable amount.

Supported banks

The website of National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) lists the banks that facilitate UPI. Banks here are termed as Payment Service Providers (PSP) – listed with their UPI application and handle – and issuers. PSP includes those banks which have their own mobile application to facilitate transaction and issuers include banks which don’t have their payments interface and rely on third-party software for transaction using UPI.



e-RUPI or e₹UPI(portmanteau of electronic Rupee and UPI) developed in collaboration with Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and National Health Authority. It was introduced from 2 August 2021. e-RUPI is to ensure leak proof delivery of welfare services and bypassing middle man to decrease corruption. Private sector can use the service for their own corporate social responsibility initiative (CSR). e-RUPI is basically e-voucher based on QR code or SMS string that can be delivered through mobile phone.e-RUPI will act as a precursor for future Central bank digital currency (CBDC) that will be launched by RBI as it will help in highlighting the gaps within the national digital payment infrastructure.

Financial Software and Systems (FSS) integrated e-RUPI on 1 December 2021 for financially under-served segments of the society.Government of Karnataka partnered with NPCI to provide student scholarship through e-RUPI which can even be received on feature phones.

As of July 2021, UPI registered 43.25 crore (432.5 million) transactions that accounted for Rs. 56,734.5 crore with highest average daily transaction of approximately 10 crore (100 million) that is double the amount from July 2020. Till August 2021, UPI forms 10% of all retail payment in India. PhonePe and Google Pay both recorded 1 billion (1 billion) transactions in August with a market share of 45.94% and 34.45% respectively in the UPI payment ecosystem while Paytm took 11.94% share with Rs. 387.85 million transaction.

From the financial year 2015–21, the domestic retail payment by value on UPI grew at 18% at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) while between 2017 and 2021, the collective payment on all forms of UPI grew at 400% CAGR. In the financial year 2021, Rs. 41 trillion (short scale) worth of money was exchanged on the UPI platform that is 2.8 times the value of debit and credit card payment at point of sale (POS) terminals and 20 times the value of digital wallet and prepaid instruments in India.

UPI registered 355 crore (3.55 billion) transactions in August 2021, showing 9.56% growth from the previous month. In terms of value, Rs. 6.39 lakh crore worth of money was transacted in August alone. From Rs. 3.2 lakh crore to Rs. 6 lakh crore, the growth in value terms doubled between September 2020 to July 2021.It had reached an all-time high of 3.65 billion transactions worth Rs. 6.54 lakh crore in value since inception in the month of September. By now the total transaction for the year 2021 reached Rs. 50 lakh crore.

UPI touched value of Rs. 7.71 lakh crore in October 2021 which is 56% jump from September. As per NPCI, daily UPI payment for the month of October is between Rs. 25,000 crore to Rs. 30,000 crore. Out of all UPI transactions done in the month of October, 54% are Person-to-Person (P2P) while 46% were Person-to-Merchant (P2M). UPI reached $844 billion in value until November 2021. In December, the total transaction value on UPI reached Rs. 8.27 lakh crore with 99% annual growth rate. The largest share in $2 trillion of annual digital payment in India comes from UPI.

Year No. of Banks live on UPI Transaction Volume (in Mn) INR Value (in Cr.)
2022* 323 27,188.54 46,44,240.11
2021 282 38,744.55 71,59,285.80
2020 207 18,880.89 33,87,744.72
2019 144 10,787.54 18,36,638.18
2018 129 3,746.32 5,85,710.45
2017 67 418.8 57,020.87
2016 35 2.65 893.07

*Data upto May 2022, source – NPCI portal

~this data excludes the transactions having debit/credit to the same account for the month of August 2018 onwards

Acceptance Domestic India

There are talks happening to operate UPI in the United Arab Emirates and Singapore which has sizeable Indian expatriates and for ease of payment for Indian tourists travelling abroad. Committee on digital payments led by Nandan Nilekani had suggested that NPCI should internationalize payment services like UPI, RuPay and BHIM. NPCI is planning to link UPI with standalone mobile wallets so that users can transfer money from one provider to another one which until now is restricted due to use of closed source technology. There is also provision for off-line UPI payment through the use of near field communication (NFC).

On 20 April 2020, Google added support for UPI payment in India to buy membership of YouTube Premium and YouTube Music either directly through a website or on the mobile application. Now Indian users can also buy or rent movies from Google TV. UPI is also enabled for the YouTube Super Chat feature.

From July 2021, AppleiPhone, iPad, and IPod Touch users in India can use UPI on App Store and iTunes Store. NPCI International Payments Limited (NIPL) is planning to extend UPI to markets such as United States, West Asia and Europe. On 4 August 2021, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance started supporting UPI AutoPay feature for insurance payment.

In August 2021, Dish TV introduced UPI scan and pay feature for the first time in a nationwide rollout due to COVID-19 restriction and heavy demand for no contact digital payment solutions. From 31 August 2021, Netflix integrated UPI AutoPay feature for Indian subscribers which was until now limited to credit and debit cards from Visa, Mastercard, American Express, and Diners Club International. As per April 2021 RBI Monetary Policy Committee directive, after March 31, 2022, all the know you customer (KYC) compliant digital wallets will become interoperable by using UPI system. In August 2021, Hotstar started supporting UPI AutoPay feature. The Hindu, Times Prime, PayU, Financial Software and Systems, TestbookEdu Solutions, Open Financial Technologies, Angel Broking and 5Paisa Capital moved to UPI AutoPay in September 2021.

Due to high usage, Samsung Electronics integrated UPI barcode scanner directly into mobile camera application for faster payment. On 3 January 2022, SonyLIV launched UPI AutoPay for all its subscribers. NPCI with Jio introduced UPI AutoPay for prepaid and postpaid mobile subscribers from 6 January 2022. Tata Mutual Fund with CAMSPay enabled UPI AutoPay feature for Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) from July 2022.

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